Company Behavior and Human Decision Processes 99 (2006) 113–142 www.elsevier.com/locate/obhdp
Relationships between leader reward and punishment behavior and subordinate attitudes, perceptions, and actions: A meta-analytic review of existing and new research Philip M. PodsakoV a, ¤, William They would. Bommer m, Nathan P. PodsakoV c, Scott B. MacKenzie a b
Indianapolis University, USA Cleveland Point out University, UNITED STATES c College or university of California, USA
Received 7 June 2005 Available online on the lookout for November 2006
Abstract Despite decades of research for the relationships among leader reward and consequence behaviors and employee attitudes, perceptions, and satisfaction, no thorough examination of these relationships have been reported inside the literature. This paper reviews the outcomes of two studies that address this issue. In the Wrst study, info from 20 new samples were accumulated on the interactions between head reward and punishment behaviours and some criterion variables which may have not recently been examined thoroughly in prior research. Inside the second analyze, a meta-analytic review was conducted incorporating both the fresh and existing research to supply estimates with the bivariate interactions between these types of leader manners and many different employee criterion variables around 78 research containing 118 independent selections. Results of regression studies designed to control for the eVects of the other leader manners showed that: (a) the relationships between leader prize and treatment behaviors and employee behaviour, perceptions, and behaviors had been more efficient when the returns or punishments were given contingently than when they had been administered non-contingently, and (b) these head reward and punishment manners were tightly related to to two parameters (employees' awareness of proper rights and function ambiguity) that were expected to become key mediators of the human relationships between these leader behaviors and the staff criterion parameters. In addition , meta-analytic evidence from longitudinal research suggested the fact that same leader behavior can be a cause of a few employee criterion variables, and a consequence of other folks. Implications of the Wndings intended for future research in the location are discussed. june 2006 Elsevier Inc. All legal rights reserved. Keywords: Leader praise and abuse behavior; Conditional reward and punishment tendencies; Transactional command behavior; Leadership meta-analysis
Since leader reward and punishment behaviors were introduced in the Weld in the early 1970s (cf. Scott, 1977; Sims, 1977; Sims & Szilagyi, 1975) they have been seen as central to the part of leaders, because they are important determinants of employee attitudes, percepCorresponding publisher. Fax: +1 812 855 8679. E-mail addresses: [email protected] edu (P. M. PodsakoV), w. [email protected] edu (W. H. Bommer), [email protected] edu (N. P. PodsakoV), [email protected] edu (S. B. MacKenzie). 0749-5978/$ -- see front side matter 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights arranged. doi: 10. 1016/j. obhdp. 2005. 2009. 002 2.
tions and behavior. For instance , in what he termed a reinforcement evaluation of management, Sims (1977) proposed that leadership itself may be seen as the supervision of encouragement contingencies during working hours settings, and that the administration of reinforcing events contingent upon desirable or perhaps appropriate kinds of employee actions are critical for the development and maintenance of employee performance. Out of this perspective, positive reinforcers built contingent upon appropriate activity behaviors ought to increase subordinate performance,
P. Meters. PodsakoV ain al. as well as Organizational Behavior and Individual Decision Processes 99 (2006) 113–142
whilst negative reinforcers (or aversive stimuli) should certainly increase break free and/or elimination responses for employees. If perhaps these escape responses incorporate functional job behaviors, then negative opinions may also result in increases in employee overall performance. Similar estimations regarding the eVects of innovator...