2a summarize two or more scientific characteristics of schizophrenia (5 marks)
They will symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into positive and negative. Positive symptoms reflect a distortion of typical functioning, and include delusions (bizarre beliefs that appear genuine but are not. ) a feeling of being controlled (e. g. by an alien force), auditory hallucinations (e. g. hearing voices), and disordered thinking (e. g. the belief that thoughts happen to be being transmit to others). Negative symptoms reflect a lessening or loss of typical function, including affective straightening (a reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression), alogia (poverty of speech) and avolition (the lack of ability to start and persevere in goal-directed behaviour). A diagnosis of schizophrenia requires at least a one-month duration of two or more confident symptoms. Unfavorable symptoms generally persist during periods of few positive symptoms.
2 b Discuss two or more neurological explanations of schizophrenia (25 marks)
Family members studies possess found that schizophrenia is far more common in the biological family members of a schizophrenic, and the closer the degree of hereditary relatedness, the higher the risk (Gottesman, 1991). Twin studies show that identical twins have a 48% risk of developing schizophrenia if their twin has the disorder when compared to 17% for non-identical mixed twins (Janicak ain al, 2001). Adoption studies have shown that 14% of the biological family of adoptees with schizophrenia were categorized as schizophrenic, compared to only 2 . seven percent of their adoptive relatives (Kety el ing 1988). Research in molecular biology has found that schizophrenics are more likely to have defective edition of the gene PPP3CC, associated with the production of calcineurin a great enzyme that regulates the immune system (Myakawa ainsi que al, 2003).
Evidence via genetic studies indicates that even when two individuals discuss the same genetics (i. electronic. identical twins), there is less than 50% risk of both growing schizophrenia if perhaps...